London was and remains the principal offshore market. In the 1980s, it became the key center in the Eurodollar market, when British banks began lending dollars as an alternative to pounds in order to maintain their leading position in global finance.

The Manufacturing ISM Report On Business is based on data compiled from monthly replies to questions asked of purchasing executives in more than 400 industrial companies.

The Eurodollar market came into being in the 1950s as a result of the Soviet Union depositing US dollars earned from oil revenue outside the US, in fear of having these assets frozen by US regulators.